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Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Exam

Do you know how to detect the fluid status during a point-of-care-ultrasound examination of the inferior vena cava (IVC)?

Normal IVC

Note the difference in diameter of the IVC during inspiration.

Abnormal IVC

1. For the large finding, which diagnosis do you think it is?
a. Pulmonary embolism (PE)
b. Congestive heart failure (CHF)
c. Taponade

2. For the collapsed IVC, which is it?
a. Sepsis
b. Hypovolemina