A 32-year-old male presented with complaint of dyspnea, fatigue, and palpitations for past 6 months. The following view of the aortic valve was obtained.
What type of valve anomaly is this?
A. Monocuspid aortic valve
B. Bicuspid aortic valve
C. Quadricuspid aortic valve
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Quadricuspid aortic valves are a rare anomaly. Incidence is low. It may sometimes be associated with other cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy etc. They are several subtypes of the condition. Aortic regurgitation is the most common complication of this condition. The left parasternal short axis view at the level of the aortic valve shows 4 aortic valve cusps. Sometimes, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may not show the valve morphology clearly. In those cases, it is recommended to perform a transesophageal echo (TEE).